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Xi Jinping has made more changes in China than any leader since Deng Xiaoping. Beijing officials believe its autocratic leadership approach is superior to Western-style democracy.

Last year, the Wall Street Journal explored how Mr. Xi’s political model is reshaping China and why it has placed it on a collision course with the West. Here are some of the main findings.

1. The West got it wrong about Xi Jinping

Before Mr. Xi became ruler of China, U.S. officials believed he would foster closer integration with the U.S.-led world order. His experience, however, showed a more chauvinistic view of the world, greater ambitions to restore China and greater tolerance for risk.

These trends led to greater military mobilization, the mass internment of ethnic Uyghur Muslims in northwest China, and a decision to remove presidential terms that signaled his intention to remain in power indefinitely.

2. Some supporters worry about the lack of guarantees in Mr. Xi’s nationalist vision

Xi’s guiding ideology, which includes his views on various aspects of governance that share the label “Xi Jinping Thought,” is a fusion of anti-liberal ideas designed primarily to legitimize his continued rule and its quest for national renewal.

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